LAST built-in scoring schemes

AT77

This scoring scheme is for weakly-similar AT-rich DNA (~27% substitutions and ~77% A+T) (MC Frith, NAR 2011 39(4):e23). It uses this matrix:

   A  C  G  T
A  2 -3 -2 -3
C -3  5 -3 -2
G -2 -3  5 -3
T -3 -2 -3  2

It sets these default lastal parameter values: -a15 -b2

ATMAP

This scoring scheme is for strongly-similar AT-rich DNA (~4% substitutions and ~76% A+T). It is also suitable for sequences with more than 4% substitution errors, if the excess error rate is explained by quality scores. It uses this matrix:

    A   C   G   T
A   4 -12 -12 -12
C -12   9 -12 -12
G -12 -12   9 -12
T -12 -12 -12   4

It sets these default lastal parameter values: -a24 -b6

BISF

This scoring scheme is for aligning bisulfite-converted DNA forward strands to a closely-related genome (MC Frith, R Mori, K Asai, NAR 2012 40(13):e100). It uses this matrix:

    A   C   G   T
A   6 -18 -18 -18
C -18   6 -18   3
G -18 -18   6 -18
T -18 -18 -18   3

It sets these default lastal parameter values: -a21 -b9

BISR

This scoring scheme is for aligning bisulfite-converted DNA reverse strands to a closely-related genome (MC Frith, R Mori, K Asai, NAR 2012 40(13):e100). It uses this matrix:

    A   C   G   T
A   3 -18 -18 -18
C -18   6 -18 -18
G   3 -18   6 -18
T -18 -18 -18   6

It sets these default lastal parameter values: -a21 -b9

BL62 or BLOSUM62

This protein scoring scheme is quite good at finding long-and-weak similarities, and not terrible at short-and-strong similarities (S Henikoff & JG Henikoff, PNAS 1992 89(22):10915-9). It uses this matrix:

   A  R  N  D  C  Q  E  G  H  I  L  K  M  F  P  S  T  W  Y  V  B  J  Z  X  *
A  4 -1 -2 -2  0 -1 -1  0 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -1  1  0 -3 -2  0 -2 -1 -1 -1 -4
R -1  5  0 -2 -3  1  0 -2  0 -3 -2  2 -1 -3 -2 -1 -1 -3 -2 -3 -1 -2  0 -1 -4
N -2  0  6  1 -3  0  0  0  1 -3 -3  0 -2 -3 -2  1  0 -4 -2 -3  4 -3  0 -1 -4
D -2 -2  1  6 -3  0  2 -1 -1 -3 -4 -1 -3 -3 -1  0 -1 -4 -3 -3  4 -3  1 -1 -4
C  0 -3 -3 -3  9 -3 -4 -3 -3 -1 -1 -3 -1 -2 -3 -1 -1 -2 -2 -1 -3 -1 -3 -1 -4
Q -1  1  0  0 -3  5  2 -2  0 -3 -2  1  0 -3 -1  0 -1 -2 -1 -2  0 -2  4 -1 -4
E -1  0  0  2 -4  2  5 -2  0 -3 -3  1 -2 -3 -1  0 -1 -3 -2 -2  1 -3  4 -1 -4
G  0 -2  0 -1 -3 -2 -2  6 -2 -4 -4 -2 -3 -3 -2  0 -2 -2 -3 -3 -1 -4 -2 -1 -4
H -2  0  1 -1 -3  0  0 -2  8 -3 -3 -1 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 -2  2 -3  0 -3  0 -1 -4
I -1 -3 -3 -3 -1 -3 -3 -4 -3  4  2 -3  1  0 -3 -2 -1 -3 -1  3 -3  3 -3 -1 -4
L -1 -2 -3 -4 -1 -2 -3 -4 -3  2  4 -2  2  0 -3 -2 -1 -2 -1  1 -4  3 -3 -1 -4
K -1  2  0 -1 -3  1  1 -2 -1 -3 -2  5 -1 -3 -1  0 -1 -3 -2 -2  0 -3  1 -1 -4
M -1 -1 -2 -3 -1  0 -2 -3 -2  1  2 -1  5  0 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1  1 -3  2 -1 -1 -4
F -2 -3 -3 -3 -2 -3 -3 -3 -1  0  0 -3  0  6 -4 -2 -2  1  3 -1 -3  0 -3 -1 -4
P -1 -2 -2 -1 -3 -1 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 -1 -2 -4  7 -1 -1 -4 -3 -2 -2 -3 -1 -1 -4
S  1 -1  1  0 -1  0  0  0 -1 -2 -2  0 -1 -2 -1  4  1 -3 -2 -2  0 -2  0 -1 -4
T  0 -1  0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -1  1  5 -2 -2  0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -4
W -3 -3 -4 -4 -2 -2 -3 -2 -2 -3 -2 -3 -1  1 -4 -3 -2 11  2 -3 -4 -2 -2 -1 -4
Y -2 -2 -2 -3 -2 -1 -2 -3  2 -1 -1 -2 -1  3 -3 -2 -2  2  7 -1 -3 -1 -2 -1 -4
V  0 -3 -3 -3 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3  3  1 -2  1 -1 -2 -2  0 -3 -1  4 -3  2 -2 -1 -4
B -2 -1  4  4 -3  0  1 -1  0 -3 -4  0 -3 -3 -2  0 -1 -4 -3 -3  4 -3  0 -1 -4
J -1 -2 -3 -3 -1 -2 -3 -4 -3  3  3 -3  2  0 -3 -2 -1 -2 -1  2 -3  3 -3 -1 -4
Z -1  0  0  1 -3  4  4 -2  0 -3 -3  1 -1 -3 -1  0 -1 -2 -2 -2  0 -3  4 -1 -4
X -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -4
* -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4  1

BL80 or BLOSUM80

This protein scoring scheme is good at finding somewhat short-and-strong similarities. (S Henikoff & JG Henikoff, PNAS 1992 89(22):10915-9). It uses this matrix:

   A  R  N  D  C  Q  E  G  H  I  L  K  M  F  P  S  T  W  Y  V  B  J  Z  X  *
A  5 -2 -2 -2 -1 -1 -1  0 -2 -2 -2 -1 -1 -3 -1  1  0 -3 -2  0 -2 -2 -1 -1 -6
R -2  6 -1 -2 -4  1 -1 -3  0 -3 -3  2 -2 -4 -2 -1 -1 -4 -3 -3 -1 -3  0 -1 -6
N -2 -1  6  1 -3  0 -1 -1  0 -4 -4  0 -3 -4 -3  0  0 -4 -3 -4  5 -4  0 -1 -6
D -2 -2  1  6 -4 -1  1 -2 -2 -4 -5 -1 -4 -4 -2 -1 -1 -6 -4 -4  5 -5  1 -1 -6
C -1 -4 -3 -4  9 -4 -5 -4 -4 -2 -2 -4 -2 -3 -4 -2 -1 -3 -3 -1 -4 -2 -4 -1 -6
Q -1  1  0 -1 -4  6  2 -2  1 -3 -3  1  0 -4 -2  0 -1 -3 -2 -3  0 -3  4 -1 -6
E -1 -1 -1  1 -5  2  6 -3  0 -4 -4  1 -2 -4 -2  0 -1 -4 -3 -3  1 -4  5 -1 -6
G  0 -3 -1 -2 -4 -2 -3  6 -3 -5 -4 -2 -4 -4 -3 -1 -2 -4 -4 -4 -1 -5 -3 -1 -6
H -2  0  0 -2 -4  1  0 -3  8 -4 -3 -1 -2 -2 -3 -1 -2 -3  2 -4 -1 -4  0 -1 -6
I -2 -3 -4 -4 -2 -3 -4 -5 -4  5  1 -3  1 -1 -4 -3 -1 -3 -2  3 -4  3 -4 -1 -6
L -2 -3 -4 -5 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3  1  4 -3  2  0 -3 -3 -2 -2 -2  1 -4  3 -3 -1 -6
K -1  2  0 -1 -4  1  1 -2 -1 -3 -3  5 -2 -4 -1 -1 -1 -4 -3 -3 -1 -3  1 -1 -6
M -1 -2 -3 -4 -2  0 -2 -4 -2  1  2 -2  6  0 -3 -2 -1 -2 -2  1 -3  2 -1 -1 -6
F -3 -4 -4 -4 -3 -4 -4 -4 -2 -1  0 -4  0  6 -4 -3 -2  0  3 -1 -4  0 -4 -1 -6
P -1 -2 -3 -2 -4 -2 -2 -3 -3 -4 -3 -1 -3 -4  8 -1 -2 -5 -4 -3 -2 -4 -2 -1 -6
S  1 -1  0 -1 -2  0  0 -1 -1 -3 -3 -1 -2 -3 -1  5  1 -4 -2 -2  0 -3  0 -1 -6
T  0 -1  0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -1 -2 -1 -1 -2 -2  1  5 -4 -2  0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -6
W -3 -4 -4 -6 -3 -3 -4 -4 -3 -3 -2 -4 -2  0 -5 -4 -4 11  2 -3 -5 -3 -3 -1 -6
Y -2 -3 -3 -4 -3 -2 -3 -4  2 -2 -2 -3 -2  3 -4 -2 -2  2  7 -2 -3 -2 -3 -1 -6
V  0 -3 -4 -4 -1 -3 -3 -4 -4  3  1 -3  1 -1 -3 -2  0 -3 -2  4 -4  2 -3 -1 -6
B -2 -1  5  5 -4  0  1 -1 -1 -4 -4 -1 -3 -4 -2  0 -1 -5 -3 -4  5 -4  0 -1 -6
J -2 -3 -4 -5 -2 -3 -4 -5 -4  3  3 -3  2  0 -4 -3 -1 -3 -2  2 -4  3 -3 -1 -6
Z -1  0  0  1 -4  4  5 -3  0 -4 -3  1 -1 -4 -2  0 -1 -3 -3 -3  0 -3  5 -1 -6
X -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -6
* -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6  1

HOXD70

This scoring scheme is often used for weak DNA similarities (F Chiaromonte, VB Yap, W Miller, PSB 2002:115-126). It uses this matrix:

     A    C    G    T    N
A   91 -114  -31 -123 -100
C -114  100 -125  -31 -100
G  -31 -125  100 -114 -100
T -123  -31 -114   91 -100
N -100 -100 -100 -100 -100

It sets these default lastal parameter values: -a400 -b30

MIQS

This scoring scheme is for finding remote protein homologs (K Yamada & K Tomii, Bioinformatics 2014 30(3):317-25). It uses this matrix:

   A  R  N  D  C  Q  E  G  H  I  L  K  M  F  P  S  T  W  Y  V  B  J  Z  X  *
A  3 -1  0  0  2  0  0  0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2  0  1  1 -4 -2  0  0 -1  0 -1 -6
R -1  6  0 -1 -3  2 -1 -2  1 -2 -3  3 -1 -3 -1  0 -1 -4 -2 -2 -1 -2 -1 -1 -6
N  0  0  5  3 -2  1  1  0  1 -4 -4  1 -2 -3 -1  1  0 -5 -1 -3  4 -4  1 -1 -6
D  0 -1  3  6 -4  1  3 -1  0 -5 -5  0 -3 -6  0  0  0 -5 -4 -3  5 -5  3 -1 -6
C  2 -3 -2 -4 12 -3 -3 -2 -1  0 -2 -3  0 -3 -3  1  0 -6 -1  2 -3 -1 -3 -1 -6
Q  0  2  1  1 -3  4  2 -2  1 -2 -2  2  0 -2  0  0  0 -5 -3 -2  1 -2  2 -1 -6
E  0 -1  1  3 -3  2  4 -1  0 -3 -3  1 -2 -4  0  0  0 -6 -2 -2  2 -3  4 -1 -6
G  0 -2  0 -1 -2 -2 -1  8 -2 -5 -5 -2 -4 -5 -2  0 -2 -5 -4 -4 -1 -5 -1 -1 -6
H -1  1  1  0 -1  1  0 -2  7 -2 -2  0 -2  0 -2  0  0  0  2 -2  0 -2  0 -1 -6
I -1 -2 -4 -5  0 -2 -3 -5 -2  5  3 -2  2  1 -4 -3 -1 -1 -1  3 -5  4 -3 -1 -6
L -1 -3 -4 -5 -2 -2 -3 -5 -2  3  5 -2  3  2 -3 -3 -2  0  0  2 -5  4 -3 -1 -6
K -1  3  1  0 -3  2  1 -2  0 -2 -2  4 -1 -4  0  0  0 -4 -2 -2  0 -2  1 -1 -6
M -1 -1 -2 -3  0  0 -2 -4 -2  2  3 -1  5  1 -3 -2 -1 -2 -1  1 -3  3 -2 -1 -6
F -2 -3 -3 -6 -3 -2 -4 -5  0  1  2 -4  1  7 -4 -3 -2  4  5  0 -5  2 -4 -1 -6
P  0 -1 -1  0 -3  0  0 -2 -2 -4 -3  0 -3 -4  8  0  0 -4 -5 -3  0 -3  0 -1 -6
S  1  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0 -3 -3  0 -2 -3  0  3  2 -4 -2 -1  0 -3  0 -1 -6
T  1 -1  0  0  0  0  0 -2  0 -1 -2  0 -1 -2  0  2  4 -5 -2  0  0 -1  0 -1 -6
W -4 -4 -5 -5 -6 -5 -6 -5  0 -1  0 -4 -2  4 -4 -4 -5 15  5 -3 -5  0 -6 -1 -6
Y -2 -2 -1 -4 -1 -3 -2 -4  2 -1  0 -2 -1  5 -5 -2 -2  5  8 -1 -3  0 -2 -1 -6
V  0 -2 -3 -3  2 -2 -2 -4 -2  3  2 -2  1  0 -3 -1  0 -3 -1  4 -3  3 -2 -1 -6
B  0 -1  4  5 -3  1  2 -1  0 -5 -5  0 -3 -5  0  0  0 -5 -3 -3  5 -5  2 -1 -6
J -1 -2 -4 -5 -1 -2 -3 -5 -2  4  4 -2  3  2 -3 -3 -1  0  0  3 -5  4 -1 -1 -6
Z  0 -1  1  3 -3  2  4 -1  0 -3 -3  1 -2 -4  0  0  0 -6 -2 -2  2 -1  4 -1 -6
X -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -6 -6
* -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6  1

It sets these default lastal parameter values: -a13 -b2

PAM30

This protein scoring scheme is good for finding short-and-strong similarities (MO Dayhoff et al. 1978). It uses this matrix:

    A   R   N   D   C   Q   E   G   H   I   L   K   M   F   P   S   T   W   Y   V   B   J   Z   X   *
A   6  -7  -4  -3  -6  -4  -2  -2  -7  -5  -6  -7  -5  -8  -2   0  -1 -13  -8  -2  -3  -6  -3  -1 -17
R  -7   8  -6 -10  -8  -2  -9  -9  -2  -5  -8   0  -4  -9  -4  -3  -6  -2 -10  -8  -7  -7  -4  -1 -17
N  -4  -6   8   2 -11  -3  -2  -3   0  -5  -7  -1  -9  -9  -6   0  -2  -8  -4  -8   6  -6  -3  -1 -17
D  -3 -10   2   8 -14  -2   2  -3  -4  -7 -12  -4 -11 -15  -8  -4  -5 -15 -11  -8   6 -10   1  -1 -17
C  -6  -8 -11 -14  10 -14 -14  -9  -7  -6 -15 -14 -13 -13  -8  -3  -8 -15  -4  -6 -12  -9 -14  -1 -17
Q  -4  -2  -3  -2 -14   8   1  -7   1  -8  -5  -3  -4 -13  -3  -5  -5 -13 -12  -7  -3  -5   6  -1 -17
E  -2  -9  -2   2 -14   1   8  -4  -5  -5  -9  -4  -7 -14  -5  -4  -6 -17  -8  -6   1  -7   6  -1 -17
G  -2  -9  -3  -3  -9  -7  -4   6  -9 -11 -10  -7  -8  -9  -6  -2  -6 -15 -14  -5  -3 -10  -5  -1 -17
H  -7  -2   0  -4  -7   1  -5  -9   9  -9  -6  -6 -10  -6  -4  -6  -7  -7  -3  -6  -1  -7  -1  -1 -17
I  -5  -5  -5  -7  -6  -8  -5 -11  -9   8  -1  -6  -1  -2  -8  -7  -2 -14  -6   2  -6   5  -6  -1 -17
L  -6  -8  -7 -12 -15  -5  -9 -10  -6  -1   7  -8   1  -3  -7  -8  -7  -6  -7  -2  -9   6  -7  -1 -17
K  -7   0  -1  -4 -14  -3  -4  -7  -6  -6  -8   7  -2 -14  -6  -4  -3 -12  -9  -9  -2  -7  -4  -1 -17
M  -5  -4  -9 -11 -13  -4  -7  -8 -10  -1   1  -2  11  -4  -8  -5  -4 -13 -11  -1 -10   0  -5  -1 -17
F  -8  -9  -9 -15 -13 -13 -14  -9  -6  -2  -3 -14  -4   9 -10  -6  -9  -4   2  -8 -10  -2 -13  -1 -17
P  -2  -4  -6  -8  -8  -3  -5  -6  -4  -8  -7  -6  -8 -10   8  -2  -4 -14 -13  -6  -7  -7  -4  -1 -17
S   0  -3   0  -4  -3  -5  -4  -2  -6  -7  -8  -4  -5  -6  -2   6   0  -5  -7  -6  -1  -8  -5  -1 -17
T  -1  -6  -2  -5  -8  -5  -6  -6  -7  -2  -7  -3  -4  -9  -4   0   7 -13  -6  -3  -3  -5  -6  -1 -17
W -13  -2  -8 -15 -15 -13 -17 -15  -7 -14  -6 -12 -13  -4 -14  -5 -13  13  -5 -15 -10  -7 -14  -1 -17
Y  -8 -10  -4 -11  -4 -12  -8 -14  -3  -6  -7  -9 -11   2 -13  -7  -6  -5  10  -7  -6  -7  -9  -1 -17
V  -2  -8  -8  -8  -6  -7  -6  -5  -6   2  -2  -9  -1  -8  -6  -6  -3 -15  -7   7  -8   0  -6  -1 -17
B  -3  -7   6   6 -12  -3   1  -3  -1  -6  -9  -2 -10 -10  -7  -1  -3 -10  -6  -8   6  -8   0  -1 -17
J  -6  -7  -6 -10  -9  -5  -7 -10  -7   5   6  -7   0  -2  -7  -8  -5  -7  -7   0  -8   6  -6  -1 -17
Z  -3  -4  -3   1 -14   6   6  -5  -1  -6  -7  -4  -5 -13  -4  -5  -6 -14  -9  -6   0  -6   6  -1 -17
X  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1 -17
* -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17   1

It sets these default lastal parameter values: -a13 -b3