scripts/last-dotplot
author Martin C. Frith
Thu Mar 02 09:25:14 2017 +0900 (2017-03-02)
changeset 838 7b972338fe04
parent 837 2c3511fa1734
child 839 bbc6f00e683b
permissions -rwxr-xr-x
Refactoring.
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#! /usr/bin/env python
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# Read pair-wise alignments in MAF or LAST tabular format: write an
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# "Oxford grid", a.k.a. dotplot.
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# TODO: Currently, pixels with zero aligned nt-pairs are white, and
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# pixels with one or more aligned nt-pairs are black.  This can look
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# too crowded for large genome alignments.  I tried shading each pixel
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# according to the number of aligned nt-pairs within it, but the
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# result is too faint.  How can this be done better?
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import fileinput, fnmatch, itertools, optparse, os, re, sys
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# Try to make PIL/PILLOW work:
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try: from PIL import Image, ImageDraw, ImageFont, ImageColor
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except ImportError: import Image, ImageDraw, ImageFont, ImageColor
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def warn(message):
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    prog = os.path.basename(sys.argv[0])
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    sys.stderr.write(prog + ": " + message + "\n")
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def tabBlocks(beg1, beg2, blocks):
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    '''Get the gapless blocks of an alignment, from LAST tabular format.'''
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    for i in blocks.split(","):
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        if ":" in i:
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            x, y = i.split(":")
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            beg1 += int(x)
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            beg2 += int(y)
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        else:
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            size = int(i)
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            yield beg1, beg2, size
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            beg1 += size
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            beg2 += size
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def mafBlocks(beg1, beg2, seq1, seq2):
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    '''Get the gapless blocks of an alignment, from MAF format.'''
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    size = 0
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    for x, y in itertools.izip(seq1, seq2):
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        if x == "-":
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            if size:
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                yield beg1, beg2, size
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                beg1 += size
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                beg2 += size
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                size = 0
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            beg2 += 1
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        elif y == "-":
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            if size:
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                yield beg1, beg2, size
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                beg1 += size
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                beg2 += size
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                size = 0
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            beg1 += 1
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        else:
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            size += 1
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    if size: yield beg1, beg2, size
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def alignmentInput(lines):
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    '''Get alignments and sequence lengths, from MAF or tabular format.'''
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    mafCount = 0
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    for line in lines:
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        w = line.split()
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        if line[0].isdigit():  # tabular format
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            chr1, beg1, seqlen1 = w[1], int(w[2]), int(w[5])
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            if w[4] == "-": beg1 -= seqlen1
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            chr2, beg2, seqlen2 = w[6], int(w[7]), int(w[10])
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            if w[9] == "-": beg2 -= seqlen2
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            blocks = tabBlocks(beg1, beg2, w[11])
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            yield chr1, seqlen1, chr2, seqlen2, blocks
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        elif line[0] == "s":  # MAF format
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            if mafCount == 0:
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                chr1, beg1, seqlen1, seq1 = w[1], int(w[2]), int(w[5]), w[6]
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                if w[4] == "-": beg1 -= seqlen1
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                mafCount = 1
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            else:
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                chr2, beg2, seqlen2, seq2 = w[1], int(w[2]), int(w[5]), w[6]
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                if w[4] == "-": beg2 -= seqlen2
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                blocks = mafBlocks(beg1, beg2, seq1, seq2)
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                yield chr1, seqlen1, chr2, seqlen2, blocks
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                mafCount = 0
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def isWantedSequenceName(name, patterns):
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    if not patterns: return True
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    base = name.split(".")[-1]  # allow for names like hg19.chr7
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    for i in patterns:
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        if fnmatch.fnmatchcase(name, i): return True
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        if fnmatch.fnmatchcase(base, i): return True
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    return False
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def readAlignments(fileName, opts):
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    '''Get alignments and sequence lengths, from MAF or tabular format.'''
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    alignments = []
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    seqLengths1 = {}
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    seqLengths2 = {}
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    lines = fileinput.input(fileName)
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    for seqName1, seqLen1, seqName2, seqLen2, blocks in alignmentInput(lines):
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        if not isWantedSequenceName(seqName1, opts.seq1): continue
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        if not isWantedSequenceName(seqName2, opts.seq2): continue
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        aln = seqName1, seqName2, blocks
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        alignments.append(aln)
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        seqLengths1[seqName1] = seqLen1
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        seqLengths2[seqName2] = seqLen2
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    return alignments, seqLengths1, seqLengths2
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def natural_sort_key(my_string):
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    '''Return a sort key for "natural" ordering, e.g. chr9 < chr10.'''
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    parts = re.split(r'(\d+)', my_string)
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    parts[1::2] = map(int, parts[1::2])
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    return parts
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def get_text_sizes(my_strings, font, fontsize, image_mode):
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    '''Get widths & heights, in pixels, of some strings.'''
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    if fontsize == 0: return [(0, 0) for i in my_strings]
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    image_size = 1, 1
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    im = Image.new(image_mode, image_size)
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    draw = ImageDraw.Draw(im)
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    return [draw.textsize(i, font=font) for i in my_strings]
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def get_seq_info(seq_size_dic, font, fontsize, image_mode):
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    '''Return miscellaneous information about the sequences.'''
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    seqNames = seq_size_dic.keys()
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    seqNames.sort(key=natural_sort_key)
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    seq_sizes = [seq_size_dic[i] for i in seqNames]
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    name_sizes = get_text_sizes(seqNames, font, fontsize, image_mode)
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    margin = max(zip(*name_sizes)[1])  # maximum text height
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    return seqNames, seq_sizes, name_sizes, margin
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def div_ceil(x, y):
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    '''Return x / y rounded up.'''
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    q, r = divmod(x, y)
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    return q + (r != 0)
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def tot_seq_pix(seq_sizes, bp_per_pix):
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    '''Return the total pixels needed for sequences of the given sizes.'''
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    return sum([div_ceil(i, bp_per_pix) for i in seq_sizes])
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def get_bp_per_pix(seq_sizes, pix_tween_seqs, pix_limit):
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    '''Get the minimum bp-per-pixel that fits in the size limit.'''
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    seq_num = len(seq_sizes)
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    seq_pix_limit = pix_limit - pix_tween_seqs * (seq_num - 1)
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    if seq_pix_limit < seq_num:
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        raise Exception("can't fit the image: too many sequences?")
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    lower_bound = div_ceil(sum(seq_sizes), seq_pix_limit)
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    for bp_per_pix in itertools.count(lower_bound):  # slow linear search
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        if tot_seq_pix(seq_sizes, bp_per_pix) <= seq_pix_limit: break
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    return bp_per_pix
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def get_seq_starts(seq_pix, pix_tween_seqs, margin):
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    '''Get the start pixel for each sequence.'''
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    seq_starts = []
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    pix_tot = margin - pix_tween_seqs
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    for i in seq_pix:
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        pix_tot += pix_tween_seqs
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        seq_starts.append(pix_tot)
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        pix_tot += i
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    return seq_starts
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def get_pix_info(seq_sizes, bp_per_pix, pix_tween_seqs, margin):
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    '''Return pixel information about the sequences.'''
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    seq_pix = [div_ceil(i, bp_per_pix) for i in seq_sizes]
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    seq_starts = get_seq_starts(seq_pix, pix_tween_seqs, margin)
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    tot_pix = seq_starts[-1] + seq_pix[-1]
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    return seq_pix, seq_starts, tot_pix
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def drawLineForward(hits, width, bp_per_pix, beg1, beg2, size):
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    while True:
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        q1, r1 = divmod(beg1, bp_per_pix)
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        q2, r2 = divmod(beg2, bp_per_pix)
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        hits[q2 * width + q1] |= 1
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        next_pix = min(bp_per_pix - r1, bp_per_pix - r2)
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        if next_pix >= size: break
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        beg1 += next_pix
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        beg2 += next_pix
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        size -= next_pix
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def drawLineReverse(hits, width, bp_per_pix, beg1, beg2, size):
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    beg2 = -1 - beg2
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    while True:
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        q1, r1 = divmod(beg1, bp_per_pix)
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        q2, r2 = divmod(beg2, bp_per_pix)
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        hits[q2 * width + q1] |= 2
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        next_pix = min(bp_per_pix - r1, r2 + 1)
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        if next_pix >= size: break
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        beg1 += next_pix
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        beg2 -= next_pix
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        size -= next_pix
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def alignmentPixels(width, height, alignments, bp_per_pix, origins1, origins2):
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    hits = [0] * (width * height)  # the image data
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    for seq1, seq2, blocks in alignments:
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        ori1 = origins1[seq1]
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        ori2 = origins2[seq2]
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        for beg1, beg2, size in blocks:
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            if beg1 < 0:
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                beg1 = -(beg1 + size)
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                beg2 = -(beg2 + size)
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            if beg2 >= 0:
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                drawLineForward(hits, width, bp_per_pix,
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                                beg1 + ori1, beg2 + ori2, size)
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            else:
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                drawLineReverse(hits, width, bp_per_pix,
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                                beg1 + ori1, beg2 - ori2, size)
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    return hits
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def expandedSeqDict(seqDict):
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    '''Allow lookup by short sequence names, e.g. chr7 as well as hg19.chr7.'''
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    newDict = {}
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    for name, x in seqDict.items():
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        base = name.split(".")[-1]
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        newDict[name] = x
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        newDict[base] = x
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    return newDict
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def isExtraFirstGapField(fields):
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    return fields[4].isdigit()
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def readGaps(fileName):
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    '''Read locations of unsequenced gaps, from an agp or gap file.'''
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    if not fileName: return
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    for line in fileinput.input(fileName):
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        w = line.split()
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        if not w or w[0][0] == "#": continue
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        if isExtraFirstGapField(w): w = w[1:]
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        if w[4] not in "NU": continue
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        seqName = w[0]
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        end = int(w[2])
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        beg = end - int(w[5])  # zero-based coordinate
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        bridgedText = w[7]
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        yield seqName, beg, end, bridgedText
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def drawUnsequencedGaps(im, gaps, origins, margin, limit, isTop, bridgedText,
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                        bp_per_pix, color):
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    '''Draw rectangles representing unsequenced gaps.'''
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    for seqName, beg, end, b in gaps:
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        if b != bridgedText: continue
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        if seqName not in origins: continue
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        ori = origins[seqName]
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        b = div_ceil(ori + beg, bp_per_pix)  # use fully-covered pixels only
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        e = (ori + end) // bp_per_pix
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        if e <= b: continue
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        if isTop: box = b, margin, e, limit
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        else:     box = margin, b, limit, e
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        im.paste(color, box)
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def make_label(text, text_size, range_start, range_size):
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    '''Return an axis label with endpoint & sort-order information.'''
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    text_width  = text_size[0]
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    label_start = range_start + (range_size - text_width) // 2
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    label_end   = label_start + text_width
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    sort_key    = text_width - range_size
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    return sort_key, label_start, label_end, text
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def get_nonoverlapping_labels(labels, label_space):
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    '''Get a subset of non-overlapping axis labels, greedily.'''
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    nonoverlapping_labels = []
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    for i in labels:
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        if True not in [i[1] < j[2] + label_space and j[1] < i[2] + label_space
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                        for j in nonoverlapping_labels]:
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            nonoverlapping_labels.append(i)
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    return nonoverlapping_labels
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def get_axis_image(seqNames, name_sizes, seq_starts, seq_pix,
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                   font, image_mode, opts):
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    '''Make an image of axis labels.'''
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    min_pos = seq_starts[0]
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    max_pos = seq_starts[-1] + seq_pix[-1]
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    height = max(zip(*name_sizes)[1])
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    labels = [make_label(i, j, k, l) for i, j, k, l in
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              zip(seqNames, name_sizes, seq_starts, seq_pix)]
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    labels = [i for i in labels if i[1] >= min_pos and i[2] <= max_pos]
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    labels.sort()
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    labels = get_nonoverlapping_labels(labels, opts.label_space)
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    image_size = max_pos, height
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    im = Image.new(image_mode, image_size, opts.border_shade)
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    draw = ImageDraw.Draw(im)
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    for i in labels:
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        position = i[1], 0
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        draw.text(position, i[3], font=font, fill=opts.text_color)
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    return im
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def seqOrigins(seqNames, seq_starts, bp_per_pix):
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    for i, j in zip(seqNames, seq_starts):
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        yield i, bp_per_pix * j
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def lastDotplot(opts, args):
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    if opts.fontfile:  font = ImageFont.truetype(opts.fontfile, opts.fontsize)
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    else:              font = ImageFont.load_default()
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    image_mode = 'RGB'
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    forward_color = ImageColor.getcolor(opts.forwardcolor, image_mode)
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    reverse_color = ImageColor.getcolor(opts.reversecolor, image_mode)
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    zipped_colors = zip(forward_color, reverse_color)
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    overlap_color = tuple([(i + j) // 2 for i, j in zipped_colors])
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    warn("reading alignments...")
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    alignments, seq_size_dic1, seq_size_dic2 = readAlignments(args[0], opts)
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    warn("done")
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    if not alignments: raise Exception("there are no alignments")
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    seq_info1 = get_seq_info(seq_size_dic1, font, opts.fontsize, image_mode)
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    seq_info2 = get_seq_info(seq_size_dic2, font, opts.fontsize, image_mode)
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    seqNames1, seq_sizes1, name_sizes1, margin1 = seq_info1
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    seqNames2, seq_sizes2, name_sizes2, margin2 = seq_info2
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    warn("choosing bp per pixel...")
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    pix_limit1 = opts.width  - margin1
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    pix_limit2 = opts.height - margin2
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    bp_per_pix1 = get_bp_per_pix(seq_sizes1, opts.pix_tween_seqs, pix_limit1)
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    bp_per_pix2 = get_bp_per_pix(seq_sizes2, opts.pix_tween_seqs, pix_limit2)
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    bp_per_pix = max(bp_per_pix1, bp_per_pix2)
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    warn("bp per pixel = " + str(bp_per_pix))
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    seq_pix1, seq_starts1, width  = get_pix_info(seq_sizes1, bp_per_pix,
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                                                 opts.pix_tween_seqs, margin1)
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    seq_pix2, seq_starts2, height = get_pix_info(seq_sizes2, bp_per_pix,
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                                                 opts.pix_tween_seqs, margin2)
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    origins1 = dict(seqOrigins(seqNames1, seq_starts1, bp_per_pix))
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    origins2 = dict(seqOrigins(seqNames2, seq_starts2, bp_per_pix))
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    warn("processing alignments...")
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    hits = alignmentPixels(width, height, alignments, bp_per_pix,
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                           origins1, origins2)
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    warn("done")
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    image_size = width, height
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    im = Image.new(image_mode, image_size, opts.background_color)
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    origins1 = expandedSeqDict(origins1)
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    origins2 = expandedSeqDict(origins2)
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    gaps1 = list(readGaps(opts.gap1))
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    gaps2 = list(readGaps(opts.gap2))
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    # draw bridged gaps first, then unbridged gaps on top:
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    drawUnsequencedGaps(im, gaps1, origins1, margin2, height, True, "yes",
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                        bp_per_pix, opts.bridged_color)
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    drawUnsequencedGaps(im, gaps2, origins2, margin1, width, False, "yes",
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                        bp_per_pix, opts.bridged_color)
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    drawUnsequencedGaps(im, gaps1, origins1, margin2, height, True, "no",
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                        bp_per_pix, opts.unbridged_color)
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    drawUnsequencedGaps(im, gaps2, origins2, margin1, width, False, "no",
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                        bp_per_pix, opts.unbridged_color)
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    for i in range(height):
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        for j in range(width):
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            store_value = hits[i * width + j]
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            xy = j, i
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            if   store_value == 1: im.putpixel(xy, forward_color)
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            elif store_value == 2: im.putpixel(xy, reverse_color)
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   348
            elif store_value == 3: im.putpixel(xy, overlap_color)
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   349
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   350
    if opts.fontsize != 0:
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        axis1 = get_axis_image(seqNames1, name_sizes1, seq_starts1, seq_pix1,
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   352
                               font, image_mode, opts)
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   353
        axis2 = get_axis_image(seqNames2, name_sizes2, seq_starts2, seq_pix2,
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   354
                               font, image_mode, opts)
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   355
        axis2 = axis2.transpose(Image.ROTATE_270)  # !!! bug hotspot
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   356
        im.paste(axis1, (0, 0))
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   357
        im.paste(axis2, (0, 0))
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   358
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   359
    for i in seq_starts1[1:]:
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   360
        box = i - opts.pix_tween_seqs, margin2, i, height
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   361
        im.paste(opts.border_shade, box)
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   362
Martin@643
   363
    for i in seq_starts2[1:]:
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   364
        box = margin1, i - opts.pix_tween_seqs, width, i
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   365
        im.paste(opts.border_shade, box)
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   366
Martin@643
   367
    im.save(args[1])
Martin@648
   368
Martin@648
   369
if __name__ == "__main__":
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   370
    usage = """%prog --help
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   371
   or: %prog [options] maf-or-tab-alignments dotplot.png
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   372
   or: %prog [options] maf-or-tab-alignments dotplot.gif
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   373
   or: ..."""
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   374
    description = "Draw a dotplot of pair-wise sequence alignments in MAF or tabular format."
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   375
    op = optparse.OptionParser(usage=usage, description=description)
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   376
    op.add_option("-1", "--seq1", metavar="PATTERN", action="append",
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   377
                  help="which sequences to show from the 1st genome")
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   378
    op.add_option("-2", "--seq2", metavar="PATTERN", action="append",
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   379
                  help="which sequences to show from the 2nd genome")
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   380
    # Replace "width" & "height" with a single "length" option?
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   381
    op.add_option("-x", "--width", type="int", default=1000,
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   382
                  help="maximum width in pixels (default: %default)")
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   383
    op.add_option("-y", "--height", type="int", default=1000,
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   384
                  help="maximum height in pixels (default: %default)")
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   385
    op.add_option("-f", "--fontfile", metavar="FILE",
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   386
                  help="TrueType or OpenType font file")
Martin@649
   387
    op.add_option("-s", "--fontsize", metavar="SIZE", type="int", default=11,
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   388
                  help="TrueType or OpenType font size (default: %default)")
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   389
    op.add_option("-c", "--forwardcolor", metavar="COLOR", default="red",
Martin@649
   390
                  help="color for forward alignments (default: %default)")
Martin@649
   391
    op.add_option("-r", "--reversecolor", metavar="COLOR", default="blue",
Martin@649
   392
                  help="color for reverse alignments (default: %default)")
Martin@650
   393
    og = optparse.OptionGroup(op, "Unsequenced gap options")
Martin@650
   394
    og.add_option("--gap1", metavar="FILE",
Martin@650
   395
                  help="read genome1 unsequenced gaps from agp or gap file")
Martin@650
   396
    og.add_option("--gap2", metavar="FILE",
Martin@650
   397
                  help="read genome2 unsequenced gaps from agp or gap file")
Martin@650
   398
    og.add_option("--bridged-color", metavar="COLOR", default="yellow",
Martin@650
   399
                  help="color for bridged gaps (default: %default)")
Martin@650
   400
    og.add_option("--unbridged-color", metavar="COLOR", default="pink",
Martin@650
   401
                  help="color for unbridged gaps (default: %default)")
Martin@650
   402
    op.add_option_group(og)
Martin@648
   403
    (opts, args) = op.parse_args()
Martin@648
   404
    if len(args) != 2: op.error("2 arguments needed")
Martin@648
   405
Martin@648
   406
    opts.text_color = "black"
Martin@648
   407
    opts.background_color = "white"
Martin@648
   408
    opts.pix_tween_seqs = 2  # number of border pixels between sequences
Martin@648
   409
    opts.border_shade = 239, 239, 239  # the shade of grey for border pixels
Martin@648
   410
    opts.label_space = 5     # minimum number of pixels between axis labels
Martin@648
   411
Martin@649
   412
    try: lastDotplot(opts, args)
Martin@649
   413
    except KeyboardInterrupt: pass  # avoid silly error message
Martin@649
   414
    except Exception, e:
Martin@649
   415
        prog = os.path.basename(sys.argv[0])
Martin@649
   416
        sys.exit(prog + ": error: " + str(e))